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Carozza, S., Holmes, J., Vértes, P.E., Bullmore, E., Arefin, T.M., Pugliese, A., Zhang, J., Kaffman, A., Akarca, D., & Astle, D.E., (2022). Early adversity changes the economic conditions of structural brain network organisations, Preprint doi:


Byrne, E.M., Gilbert, R.A., Kievit, R., & Holmes, J. (2021). Backward recall and n-back measures of working memory: A large-scale latent variable analysis. In revision. Preprint DOI: PsyArXiv 10.31234/


Mareva, S., The CALM Team, & Holmes, J. (2022). Transdiagnostic Profiles of Behaviour and Communication Relate to Academic and Socio-emotional Functioning and Neural White Matter Organisation, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, in press.

Guy, J., Mareva, S., Franckel, G., The CALM Team, & Holmes, J. (2022). Cognition, Behaviour, and Mental Health in Struggling Learners: A Spotlight on Girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Advances, in press. Preprint


Carozza, S., Holmes, J., & Astle, D. (2022). Testing deprivation and threat:  A pre-registered network analysis of the dimensions of early adversity. Psychological Science, in press. 

Williams, K., Holmes, J., Farina, F., Vedechkina, M., the CALM Team, & Bennett, M.P. (2022). Inconsistencies between objective and subjective measures of cognitive difficulties are associated with heightened psychological distress: A provisional functional cognitive difficulties account,

Bryant, A., Schlesinger, H., Sideri. A., Holmes, J., & Meiser-Stedman, R. (2022). A meta-analytic review of the impact of ADHD medications on anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, in press. 

O’Brien, S.M., Duncan. J., Mitchell., D., & Holmes J. (2022). Cognitive segmentation and fluid reasoning in childhood. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, in press. Preprint:

Holmes, J., Mareva, S., Bennett, M.P., Black, M.J., & Guy, J. (2021). Dimensions of psychopathology in a neurodevelopmental transdiagnostic sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, in press. 
Astle, D.E., Holmes, J., Kievit, R., & Gathercole S.E. (2021). The transdiagnostic revolution in neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Annual Review, in press.
Mareva, S., The CALM Team, & Holmes, J. (2021). Network models of learning and cognition in typical and typical learners. Journal of Applied Research In Memory and Cognition,

Holmes, J., Byrne, E.M., & Jaroslawska, A.J. (2021). Working memory and classroom learning. In J. Schwieter & E. Wen (2021). Cambridge Handbook of Working Memory and Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Rowe, A., Titterington, J., Holmes, J., Henry, L., & Taggart, L. (2021). A classroom intervention targeting working memory, attention and language skills: a cluster randomised feasibility trial. Pilot & Feasibility Studies, in press.


Holmes, J., Guy, J., Kievit, R., Bryant, A., Mareva, S., The CALM Team, & Gathercole, S.E. (2020). Cognitive dimensions of learning in children with problems in attention, learning and memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, Advance Online Publication,

Jaroslawka, A.J., Bartup, G., Forsberg, A., & Holmes, J. (2020) Age-Related Differences in Adults’the Ability to Follow Spoken Instructions, Memory, 1, 117-128,


Bryant, A., Guy, J., the CALM Team & Holmes, J. (2020). Behavioural problems and mental ill-health in children struggling at school. Frontiers in Psychology, Developmental Psychology, 11, 3125,


Siugzdaite, R., Bathelt, J., Holmes, J., Astle, D.E. (2020). Transdiagnostic brain mapping in developmental disorders. Current Biology, 30, 1245-1257,

Byrne, E.M., Ewbank, M.P., Gathercole, S.E., & Holmes, J. (2020). Backward recall training: the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on within- and cross-paradigm transfer. Brain & Cognition, 141, 10552


Fancourt, A., & Holmes, J. (2020). Working memory and classroom learning. Chapter 4. In J. Harrington, J. Beale, A. Fancourt & C. Lutz (2020) The BrainCanDo Handbook of Teaching and Learning, London and New York: Routledge.


Byrne, E.M., Nord, C., & Holmes, J. (2020). Cognitive plasticity and brain stimulation. In T. Strobach & J. Karbach (2020) Cognitive Training: An Overview of Features and Applications. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.




Mareva, S., the CALM Team, & Holmes, J. (2019). Transdiagnostic associations across communication, cognitive and behavioural problems in a developmentally at-risk population. BMC Pediatrics, 19, 452-462.


Holmes, J., Woolgar, F., Hampshire, A., & Gathercole, S.E. (2019). Are working memory training effects paradigm-specific? Frontiers in Psychology, Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1103.


Rowe, A., Titterington, J., Holmes, J., Henry, L., & Taggart, L. (2019). Interventions targeting working memory in 4–11 year olds within their everyday contexts: A systematic review. Developmental Review, 52, 1-23.


Holmes, J., Bryant, A., & Gathercole, S. E. (2019). Protocol for a transdiagnostic study of children with problems of attention, learning and memory (CALM). BMC Pediatrics, 19(1), 10.


Gathercole, S. E., Dunning, D. L., Holmes, J., & Norris, D. (2019). Working memory training involves learning new skills. Journal of Memory and Language, 105, 19-42.




Gathercole, S. E., Dunning, D. L., Holmes, J., & Norris, D. G. (2018). Feature coding dataset for trained and untrained working memory tasks in randomized controlled trials of working memory training. Data in brief, 21, 2129-2133.


Astle, D. E., Bathelt, J., CALM Team, & Holmes, J. (2018). Remapping the cognitive and neural profiles of children who struggle at school. Developmental science, 22(1), e12747.


Gathercole, S. E., Dunning, D. L., Holmes, J., & Norris, D. G. (2018). Feature coding dataset for trained and untrained working memory tasks in randomized controlled trials of working memory training. Data in brief, 21, 2129-2133.


Holmes, J., Bathelt, J., & Astle, D.E. (2018). Look beyond the label, TES, 5324, 30-35.


Bathelt, J., Holmes, J., & Astle, D. E. (2018). Data-driven subtyping of behavioural problems associated with ADHD in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57, 252–262.


Jaroslawska, A. J., Gathercole, S. E., & Holmes, J. (2018). Following instructions in a dual-task paradigm: Evidence for a temporary motor store in working memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 2439-2449.


Cooper, P., Murray, L., Jennings, S., Mortimer, A., Prout, A., Melhish, E., Hughes, C., Duncan, J., Holmes, J., & Dishington, C. (2018). The impact of early-years provision in children's centres (EPICC) on child cognitive and socio-emotional development: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BioMed Central, Trials, 19, 450.




Waterman, A., Atkinson, A., Aslam, S., Holmes, J., Jaroslawska, A., & Allen, R. (2017). Do actions speak louder than words? Examining children’s ability to follow instructions. Memory and Cognition, 45(6), 877-890.


Yang T., Allen R., Holmes J., Chan R.C.K. (2017). Following instructions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The benefits of action at presentation and recall. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.


Lau Zhu, A., Holmes, E., Butterfield, S., & Holmes, J. (2017). Selective association between Tetris game play and visuospatial working memory: A preliminary investigation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 438-445.




Jaroslawska, A. J., Gathercole, S. E., Allen, R., & Holmes, J. (2016). Following instructions from working memory: Why does action at encoding and recall help? Memory & Cognition, 44, 1183-1191.


Jaroslawska, A. J., Gathercole, S. E., Logie, M. R., & Holmes, J. (2016). Following instructions in a virtual school: Does working memory play a role? Memory & Cognition, 44, 580-589.


Holmes, J., Byrne, E., Gathercole, S.E., & Ewbank, M.P. (2016). Transcranial random noise does not enhance the effects of working memory training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28, 1471-1483.


Hawkins, E., Gathercole S.E, Astle D., Holmes J. (2016). Language problems and ADHD symptoms: How specific are the links? Brain Sciences, 6, 50.


Gathercole, S.E., Woolgar, F., the CALM Team, Manly, T., Astle, D., Kievit, R., & Holmes, J. (2016). How common are WM deficits in children with difficulties in reading and mathematics? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5, 384-394.



Holmes, J., Butterfield, S., Cormack, F., van Loenhoud, A., Ruggero, L., Kashikar, L., & Gathercole, S.E. (2015). Improving working memory in children with low language abilities, Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, 6, 519.




Holmes, J., Hilton, K.A., Place, M., Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J.G., & Gathercole, S.E. (2014). Children with low working memory and children with ADHD: same or different? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 976.


Gathercole, S.E., & Holmes, J. (2014). Developmental impairments of working memory: Profiles and interventions. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 40, 36.


Dunning, D.L., & Holmes, J. (2014). Does working memory training promote the use of strategies on untrained working memory tasks? Memory & Cognition, 42, 854-862.




Zirk-Sadowski, J., Szucs, D., & Holmes, J. (2013). Content specificity in verbal short-term and verbal working memory. PLoS One, 8(11), e79528.


Dunning, D.L., Holmes, J., & Gathercole, S.E. (2013).Does working memory training improve the classroom performance of children with poor working memory? A randomised controlled trial. Developmental Science, 16, 915-25.


Holmes, J., & Gathercole, S.E. (2013). Taking working memory training from the laboratory into schools. Educational Psychology, 34, 440-450.


Bennett, S., Holmes, J., & Buckley, S. (2013). Computerised memory training leads to sustained improvement in visuo-spatial short term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 118, 179-192.




Gathercole, S.E., Dunning, D.L., & Holmes, J. (2012). Cogmed training: Let's be realistic about intervention research. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 201-203.


Holmes, J. (2012). Working memory and learning difficulties. Dyslexia Review, 23, 7-10.




Holmes, J. (2011). Baby Brain: Training executive control in infancy. Current Biology, 21, R684-R685.



Alloway, T P., Elliott, J., & Holmes, J (2010). The prevalence of ADHD-like symptoms in a community sample. Journal of Attention Disorders, 14, 52-56. 


Holmes, J., Gathercole, S.E., & Dunning, D.L. (2010). Poor working memory: Impact and Interventions. In P.Bauer (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behaviour, Volume 39, Developmental Disorders and Interventions, J.Holmes, Academic Press: London, UK, 2010, pp.1-43.


Elliott, J., Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Holmes, J., & Kirkwood, H. (2010). An Evaluation of a Classroom-Based Intervention to Help Overcome Working Memory Difficulties and Improve Long-Term Academic Achievement. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 9, 227-250.


Holmes, J., Gathercole, S E., Place, M., Dunning, D L., Hilton, K A., & Elliott, J G (2010). Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD, Applied Cognitive Psychology. 24, 827-836.


Holmes, J., Gathercole, S E., Place, M., Alloway, T P., Elliott, J G., & Hilton, K A. (2010). The diagnostic utility of executive function assessments in the identification of ADHD in children, Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 15, 37-43.




Alloway, T P., Gathercole, S E., Holmes, J., Place, M., & Elliott, J (2009). The diagnostic utility of behavioural checklists in identifying children with ADHD and children with working memory deficits. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 40, 353-366.


Holmes, J., Gathercole, S E., & Dunning, D L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children, Developmental Science, 12, F9-F15.




Gathercole, S E., Alloway, T P., Kirkwood, H J., Elliott, J E., Holmes, J., & Hilton, K. (2008). Attentional and executive function behaviours in children with poor working memory. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 214-223.


Holmes, J., Adams, J.W., & Hamilton, C J. (2008). Visuo-spatial working memory capacity and children's mathematical skills. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20, 272-289.




Holmes, J. & Adams, J W. (2006). Working memory and children's mathematical skills: Implications for mathematical development and mathematics curricula. Educational Psychology, 26, 339-366.


Pre-registered Reports


Holmes, J., Kievit, R., Guy, J., the CALM Team & Gathercole, S.E (2019, May 16). The cognitive dimensions of struggling learners.


Mareva, S., & Holmes, J. (2019, March 3). Inter-symptom associations across behaviour and mental health (#20333)


Bryant, A., & Holmes, J. (2018, August 16). SDQ scores and mental health in children struggling at school (#13396)


O’Brien, S. & Holmes, J. (2018, August 14). Cognitive Segmentation in Children with low IQ (#13338)


Byrne, E. M., Gilbert, R. A., Kievit, R., & Holmes, J., (2018, February 13). Backward recall and n-back measures of working memory: a large-scale latent variable analysis.


Mareva, S., & Holmes, J. (2017, December 12) Network analysis: behaviour problems & communication skills" As Predicted (#7375)


Gathercole, S. E., Byrne, E. M., Holmes, J., & Norris, D. G. (2017, October 10). Training and transfer in forward and backward serial recall.


Lau-Zhu, A., Holmes, E. A., Holmes, J., & Butterfield, S. (2017, July 5). Selective Association between Tetris Game Play and Visuospatial Working Memory: A Preliminary Investigation.


Byrne, E. M., Ewbank, M., & Holmes, J., (2017, March 31). Does transcranial electrical stimulation during working memory training enhance cross-paradigm transfer effects?

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